Embedded Social Learning in a Persuasive Technology: Building up Child Confidence to Dental Treatment

By Sobihatun Nur Abdul Salam, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya and Azillah Mohd Ali.

Published by The International Journal of Science in Society

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Article: Electronic $US5.00

Lack of confidence is one of a common factor of children’s dental anxiety and potentially distressing problem for both the children and the dental practitioner. Treatment for dental anxiety can be pharmacological or psychological, or a combination of both. The main purpose of the paper is to embed a social learning as a psychological approach in a persuasive technology particularly to overcome the problem addressed. Firstly, this paper discussed the conceptual of a social learning, identifying the principles and rationale in building up children confidence to dental treatment. Secondly, based on social learning principles, a Persuasive Multimedia Learning Environment (PMLE) was developed to educate and help the children to gain their confidence. Primary school children age between seven and nine years old are selected as respondents. Thirdly, an experimental study was administered to access the effects of PMLE particularly in the reduction of children dental anxiety. Findings of this study shown PMLE was successful to the dental anxiety child as a psychological treatment. Perhaps, it can be an alternative way to pharmacological approach in overcoming dental anxiety among children.

Keywords: Children Dental Anxiety, Social Learning, Persuasive Technology

The International Journal of Science in Society, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp.173-184. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.728MB).

Sobihatun Nur Abdul Salam

PhD Student, Centre of Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

Sobihatun Nur Abdul Salam is a PhD student from the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA. She holds a Master of Science in Information Technology from Universiti Utara Malaysia, MALAYSIA. Currently she is doing her PhD study in interdisciplinary research. She is integrating multimedia design principles and persuasive design principles in reducing children dental anxiety. Her PhD research project entitled Persuasive Multimedia Learning Environment (PMLE) won the gold award in the 20th International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design & Technology Exhibition 2009 (ITEX09) competition. She is currently apply for pattern to commercialize the product.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

Senior Lecturer, Centre of Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Dr. Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya is a senior lecturer from the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA. He holds a PhD degree in Educational Multimedia from the University of Leeds, UK and M.Ed in Computer in Education from the University of Manchester, UK. Currently, he is teaching graduate and undergraduate students in instructional multimedia. He also supervises PhD and Masters students from Malaysia and foreign countries. Dr. Jaafar is a consultant of several project in the multinational companies as well as many private colleges. He is also involved in the study of ICT initiatives in Malaysian schools as well as in Cambodia. His project entitled Persuasive Multimedia Learning Environment (PMLE) won the gold award in the 20th International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design & Technology Exhibition 2009 (ITEX09) competition.

Dr. Azillah Mohd Ali

B.D.S (Malaya), M.Sc PEDODONTICS (London), FDSRC (Edinburgh) Consultant Expert and Head Department, Pediatric Dentistry Department, Hospital Alor Star, Kedah, Malaysia

Dr. Azillah bt Mohd Ali Senior Consultant and Head Department Department of Pediatric Dentistry Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah (Alor Setar) Dr. Azillah graduated from the, University of Malaya with bachelor of dental surgery in 1985. She went on to do the specialization in Pediatric Dentistry at the Eastman Dental Institute, London in 1994 and later on obtained the membership from the Royal College of Surgeon Of Edinburgh in 1995. She is currently the Consultant and Head Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah (Alor Setar). She has presented a number of papers in national and international conference 2005- in Kuala Lumpur at Asian Pacific Dental Congress APDC (2005), the 1st International Conference of Pediatric Dentistry (2006) and 15th FDI/MDA Scientific Convention (KL) 2008. Her research areas are on dental trauma, behavior management of children with special needs and early childhood caries. Topic as esthetics dentistry and fracture teeth and their term follow-up have her special interest. She also has been external examiner for the Children Centers and Dental Training College of Penang in Malaysia for the past 9 years (2000 to 2009) and also involved in the teaching, the supervising and training the undergraduates as well as postgraduates student.