According to the literature, African Americans (AA) have significantly higher burdens of obesity, cancer and coronary diseases than Caucasian Americans (CA); in the last four decades, obesity and overweight prevalence have been consistently higher in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. African-American youth show a higher prevalence of obesity, higher overall adiposity, and increased risk for developing metabolic syndromes compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian youth. Inflammation precedes obesity, which increases the risk of coronary disease; inflammatory plasma levels cytokine biomarkers, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein, are higher among obese African Americans. Over the past twenty years, African Americans have also shown higher colorectal cancer mortality rates, adverse survival rate from pancreatic cancer, double the breast cancer mortality rate and higher ovarian cancer death rates compared to Caucasian Americans. In the same fashion, African Americans have elevated risks of hypertension, stroke and diabetes than non-Hispanic Caucasians. A review of the literature suggests that there is a correlation between AA high heat cooking practices and the presence of cooking contaminants that increase the possibility of health disparities when comparing AA with other ethnic groups. Markedly, high heat cooking increases the presence of two groups of carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). A common PAH is Benzo-a-pyrene, whereas a common (HCA) is MelQx, PhIP. Both carcinogens are associated with pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and kidney cancer. These exposures are exacerbated by the consumption of high sodium processed foods that contain elevated levels of endocrine disruptors, such as Bisphenol A, Paraben, and Phthalate.
|Keywords:||Glucuronidation, Detoxification of Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs), Benzo-a-pyrene, MelQx, PhIP, Bisphenol A. Paraben, Phathalate, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)|
Student Researcher, Student Researcher, University of Cincinnati, Ohio State University, DECLARE Therapy Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Prof, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Researcher, Occupational Therapist, San Francisco, CA, USA
Cupertino, CA, USA
Researcher, NKU Faculty, Covington, KY, USA