Racial Disparity in Exposure to High-heat Cooking Contaminants (Benzo-a-pyrene, MelQx, PhIP), Bisphenol A, Paraben, Phathalate and Endocrine Disrupters

By Henry Comer, Purcell Taylor, Shanti Malladi, Tianna Chow and Causenge Cangin.

Published by The International Journal of Science in Society

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According to the literature, African Americans (AA) have significantly higher burdens of obesity, cancer and coronary diseases than Caucasian Americans (CA); in the last four decades, obesity and overweight prevalence have been consistently higher in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. African-American youth show a higher prevalence of obesity, higher overall adiposity, and increased risk for developing metabolic syndromes compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian youth. Inflammation precedes obesity, which increases the risk of coronary disease; inflammatory plasma levels cytokine biomarkers, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein, are higher among obese African Americans. Over the past twenty years, African Americans have also shown higher colorectal cancer mortality rates, adverse survival rate from pancreatic cancer, double the breast cancer mortality rate and higher ovarian cancer death rates compared to Caucasian Americans. In the same fashion, African Americans have elevated risks of hypertension, stroke and diabetes than non-Hispanic Caucasians. A review of the literature suggests that there is a correlation between AA high heat cooking practices and the presence of cooking contaminants that increase the possibility of health disparities when comparing AA with other ethnic groups. Markedly, high heat cooking increases the presence of two groups of carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). A common PAH is Benzo-a-pyrene, whereas a common (HCA) is MelQx, PhIP. Both carcinogens are associated with pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and kidney cancer. These exposures are exacerbated by the consumption of high sodium processed foods that contain elevated levels of endocrine disruptors, such as Bisphenol A, Paraben, and Phthalate.

Keywords: Glucuronidation, Detoxification of Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs), Benzo-a-pyrene, MelQx, PhIP, Bisphenol A. Paraben, Phathalate, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)

The International Journal of Science in Society, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp.47-53. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 356.571KB).

Henry Comer

Student Researcher, Student Researcher, University of Cincinnati, Ohio State University, DECLARE Therapy Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Henry Comer received his Associates of Arts and Bachelors of Arts degrees from the University of Cincinnati Pre-Med/with honors. Comer’s interests include the biological aspect of human behavior, abnormal neural psychiatry, and neurology. He is also a lifetime member of PSI CHI, The International Honor Society of Psychology.

Dr. Purcell Taylor

Prof, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Dr. Taylor is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Cincinnati. He holds an Ed. D. from the University of Cincinnati, which he received in 1977 in the School of Psychology and Administration.

Shanti Malladi

Researcher, Occupational Therapist, San Francisco, CA, USA

As an excellent and devoted researcher and occupational therapist, Shanti Malladi plays an instrumental role in the public school districts of San Francisco.

Tianna Chow

Cupertino, CA, USA

Tianna Chow graduated from the University of California, Davis with a B.S. degree in microbiology. After graduating college, Chow began working for a surgical pathology lab grossing specimens.

Causenge Cangin

Researcher, NKU Faculty, Covington, KY, USA

Causenge Cangin is a faculty member at NKU; she holds her Bachelor of Science degree with Honours from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, and her Master of Science degree from the University of California in Davis, California.